Riesgo cardiovascular, síndrome metabólico y co-morbilidad durante el climaterio

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Peter Chedraui

Resumen

Durante la transición a la menopausia, las mujeres aumentan de peso, en parte debido a la disminución de los niveles de estrógenos ováricos y también al envejecimiento. La obesidad se está convirtiendo a nivel mundial en un problema de salud pública. El aumento de peso en mujeres de mediana edad está relacionado con el desarrollo de diabetes, hipertensión, resistencia a la insulina, dislipidemia, cáncer, entre otras condiciones que desmejoran la calidad de vida. Una condición importante es el síndrome metabólico que es un grupo de factores lipídicos y no lipídicos que aumentan el riesgo cardiovascular. Estos factores incluyen obesidad abdominal, niveles bajos de HDL-C y niveles elevados de triglicéridos séricos, glucosa en ayunas y/o presión arterial; con tres o más elementos necesarios para cumplir con el diagnóstico. La característica más importante del síndrome es la obesidad abdominal. Aunque los informes indican que la tasa del síndrome aumenta después de la menopausia femenina, como consecuencia de la aparición de varias de las características antes mencionadas, en general debido a cambios en los hábitos de vida y al hecho de que las mujeres aumentan el peso corporal durante la transición menopáusica mucho antes de la menopausia, parece haber un aumento en la tasa del síndrome antes de la menopausia. El síndrome metabólico se considera un estado pro-inflamatorio con alta secreción de adipocitocinas que posteriormente produce disfunción endotelial y aumenta la morbimortalidad cardiovascular y el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes. Este documento tiene como objetivo realizar una visión general que aborde el riesgo cardiovascular, el síndrome metabólico y las comorbilidades durante el climaterio femenino.


 


 

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Chedraui P. Riesgo cardiovascular, síndrome metabólico y co-morbilidad durante el climaterio. Rev. Med. UCSG [Internet]. 6 de junio de 2023 [citado 17 de junio de 2024];24(1):7-20. Disponible en: https://rmedicina.ucsg.edu.ec/index.php/ucsg-medicina/article/view/1206
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